Transcript #20 Going Gradeless in the Traditional Classroom with Starr Sackstein

Ti-Fen (9s): Welcome to Compass Teachers show I’m your host Ti-Fen.  My job is to interview Teachers around on the road and tease out their teaching practice, education research, or tools they use. Hopefully this show can offer us ideas for you to experiment in your classroom. Hey, this episode is all about Hacking Assessment. If you have been thinking about changing your assessment but don’t know how to do it, I hope in this episode, you can get some practical action to take. 

If you have never thought about changing this episode will give you totally different insights. Today. We are really excited to have Starr Sackstein to share with her Amazing hacks for transforming these paradigms. Starr Sackstein has been an educator since 2001 and left her role as the director of humanities in the West Hempstead Union Free School District to become a full-time consultant with the Core Collaborative. Starr was named an ASCD “Emerging Leader” class of 2016 and gave a TEDx Talk called “A Recovering Perfectionist’s Journey to Give Up Grades.” 

She has authored many books for teachers. For example , Teaching Students to Self-Assess,  Hacking Assessment: 10 Ways to Go Gradeless in a Traditional Grades School, Peer Feedback in the Classroom and the list goes on. Starr has traveled the world sharing ideas about assessment reform in Dubai and South Korea and is hoping to continue changing the system for kids everywhere. Now let’s enjoy our conversation with Starr. Starr will come to our show. 

Star: Thanks so much for having me.

Ti-Fen: So Starr from your word. We know that you put tan, so we were to help teach her changing how they Assess. But before we dive deeper into data, I guess, before you do all these endeavors or to change this paradigm, you might have been three or something wrong with you for a while. I’m curious what really triggered or you have to take action.

Star:  So for the first few years of my career, I would save it. It was pretty business as usual I did. Assess the wave that it was done to me when I was a student.  And, you know, I thought that gradeswere basically supposed to, to communicate what students knew, but there were a lot of other factors involved, like how well they were able to follow my rules and other compliance measures like late work and following directions, all of those different things kind of played in. And when I had my son and he got to middle and elementary school, those School used a standards based approach to learning and report card gave 

Star: (3m 0s): A lot of very specific information about what he knew and could do. And I was thinking about the AP students in my 12th grade English class and how ineffective report cards were. And the way that I was assessing really was because there was such little precision in the kind of feedback my students were getting in terms of their grades that I really started to rethink things. 

And at that point I started to read a bunch of books. The one that really got me going on this path would be Ken O’Connor’s book, a tool kit for broken grading, 15 fixes. And when I read that book, I really reflected deeply on the things that I was doing, that he claimed were the best practices. And the more I thought about it, the more I could see what he was talking about. 

For example, for group projects, grading group projects, and then giving that grade to everyone in the group, which is definitely something I did in my early career. And, and really what I learned was that grade was not necessarily representative of the contribution of each child in that group. So what did the grade actually represent? How well the product met the Mark, but it wasn’t necessarily fair or equitable or even close to communicating what each child’s contribution was. 

So I started to realize things needed to shift at that point. And once you could see something as not being as good as it could be, all of a sudden, you start to question all the practices that you’re doing, and that’s sort of where my journey started. Just not grading as much, giving better, more specific feedback, changing the way that I assessed both formatively and summatively. I stopped giving Traditional kinds of tests and started moving towards a student centered approach where students had a part and a voice in the kind of assessments they were engaging in. 

And then they also had a roll in, in how that assessment was then assessed after the fact, whether, you know, just making sure, but it was along with standards, but more importantly, that I wasn’t missing anything in their learning, through the use of reflection. 

Ti-Fen (5m 43s): Wonderful. So I think it’s a good time we dig into the alternative of assessment that optimizes you. This learning, first of all, I bet we need to change our perception of Assessment before doing any. And Starr, I think you have mentioned before in your story, how it triggers you to take action. So, sorry. How did you convey these to your students or parents, or even your school administrators? 

Starr (6m 14s): So that’s a, it’s a tricky question. I think when I first started doing this, I was the only teacher in my six to 12. Schools doing something that was so far outside of the normal New York city, public schools still required a grade at the end of each marking period. And so I had to find loopholes that were going to suit what I was trying to do and also fit what my school expected me to do. 

I don’t know if I really asked permission of my principal and the administration on my team. I think that I wanted to make sure I could get the results I was looking for before I had formal permission to do it, because it would have been harder to try what a, what I wanted to do and then Ask and get a no, and then have to find another way around it. So the, the first thing I sort of started to do was stop grading, everything that didn’t mean I stopped giving feedback. 

If anything, I kind of ramped up the feedback, but I didn’t actually put a grade on the formative aspects of the learning. So if my students were writing drafts, even if I was tracking the draft’s in our online communications system, rather than put a grade on the draft, they got specific feedback that aligned with the success criteria for the assignment. And they also got specific feedback that aligned with the goals they were working on individually. 

And that was the first major change I made. I made sure to reach out to parents via email and also by building a YouTube channel so that they can see what’s actually happening in the classroom and kind of explain some of the differences between what was happening in our classroom than other classrooms. And then I also tried to keep myself open if parents contacted me to answer their questions and concerns, because as the teacher of 12th grade students who were on their way into college, obviously a lot of AP students are concerned about their transcript and parents are worried that changing the approach or model at this point in a student’s career could somehow negatively affect their ability to get into college. 

So just really finding ways to alleviate concern, have parents and students that the learning would still be there, if not better and more communication about the specifics of what Students knew and could do. 

Ti-Fen (8m 58s): Right. So how did you explain to them that this way of giving feedback is a better way? 

Starr: So I’m sure, you know, and, and sort of your listeners that sometimes the proof is in the pudding as they say. So it took a little convincing at first, and there were conversations that I had with my Students very Frank and transparent about how we were going to be making the shift in. This was something new for me, but transparently explaining why we were doing it and then helping them understand how the Feedback they would get and the opportunities they would have to make revisions and spend more time with their work would increase their level of knowing. 

And the school itself was a portfolio School. So they were tracking their progress anyway, in the portfolio’s for all the classes that they were in. So this idea of using your learning as benchmarks and then tracking your progress through individual assignments was an opportunity for us to sort of say, you know, you’re going to keep working on something until your proficiency who are masterful at it. And you’re going to know if you’re proficient, who are masterful at it, because we’re going to have really clear expectations, success criteria is going to be visible. 

And then you’re going to have opportunities for, to advocate for help make revisions based on the feedback that you get, whether it’s pure feedback or feedback from me. And then you’re going to think about you’re learning over the course of that entire experience, the formative aspects of it, and then the summative, once you turn that project or a paper, and at the end, based on the feedback that you gave, you are going to write a really clear standards, aligned reflection that speaks about your process, so that you know, that I see the full picture and then your being assessed on something more completely. 

And I think when they started to see that and that they were getting so much more information than just agreed, most of my students actually really liked the fact that I took so much time to really make sure, but they were successful. And, you know, we were really using what they were learning and it, it was helping us kind of benchmark where we, where we were and where we needed to go. And again, that process just became a lot more transparent because it was their needs that were dictating how projects were developed and how quickly, or how slowly we are. 

Ti-Fen (11m 59s): All right.  Now we have talked about Feedback. So I think that’s a good segway. We can chat more about How teachers can construct the Feedback? In your blog. If you say that you will give oral and written feedback, besides one-to-one conferences with students become very important. So when you’re giving students written  Feedback, or talking with the, you know, one to one conference, what are your strategies for constructing feedback that’s helpful for students?

Starr: So, because my students were 11th and 12th graders, mostly the feedback was teaching them how to ask for the kind of help and Feedback they needed. I think a lot of students walk up to a teacher and say, is this good? Which is a pretty generic and subjective kind of question. So the first part of giving really effective feedback is teaching students to ask really good questions about what they want feedback about. 

So you’re structuring your classes like a workshop, and you have your mini lessons each day, and you see that students are struggling with specific things. The first and easiest way to determine how you’re gonna give feedback is based on the very specific skills your teaching them. So if we are learning about thesis statements or developing contexts and an introductory paragraph, or we are talking about transitions and cohesion, or we’re talking about development, any of those things, that’s where we’re going to start with the Feedback looking at what students do really well, because we want to make sure that we’re kind of building the Feedback out of their strengths and not out of their deficits. 

And we want to communicate to them why, what they’re doing is really good and how they could build on it. And then the areas of challenge we really want to make sure, but they understand, first of all, what it should look like. So there should be models and exemplars ready to point them to, there should be at least one or two strategies you could provide for them, if you want them to grow in a particular way. And then you need to give them time to ask more questions and practice the different things. 

And then come back to again and say, I tried strategies, and this is what I was able to achieve or strategy didn’t work for me. So I went to strategy be, and then I linked up with one of my friends and, you know, try to get some feedback from a peer seemed to be doing better with this area than I did. And you know, that kind of helped me try a different way. And that’s also how you get kids to start building their own goals as well, based on the feedback that we’re giving. 

So we wanna start first with were the whole class, his, and then as we are taking the status of the class before, there was one on one conferences, really trying to get a good idea of where the kids are as a group and where they are individually, so that you can really tailor the feedback that you’re giving to something more specific to this, to the student who is sitting in front of you.

Ti-Fen: That’s really great. Let’s review it first.  We know we need to teach them to act effective Feedback and in the Feedback for us, we need to ask you to why and how an O so some really practical examples that student and then give them some time to experiment and try to reflect with more questions. And I bet that Starr, you might get some questions or doubts from Teachers like saying, Hey, it sounds like it might take lots of time after day changing the letter Grades. And for that kind of question, how do you respond to Teachers or any tips that you would give them so they can keep Feedback in a more effective fashion? 

Starr: Okay. So this is also kind of a tough thing, and I do want to preface it by saying I did teach high school English in New York city schools. So I had a course load of 150 students in my five classes, or more than that, because classes were capped at 34. 

So it is possible to give really good specific feedback to that many students. It does take a lot of time. And as you’re building structures on the front end, you have to find things that are going to work for your kids. So whether you’re developing Google forms that align with the standards and what you are actually, what you’re actually Teaching, and you’re teaching students to reflect and think about learning through those forms. As you scaffold the process by midyear, it does become a lot less clunky. 

Then it is in the beginning of the year, when you are getting to know your students and your also building those structures that your going to be using, but it, but it is time consuming. And, and I would argue though, that Grades are a very efficient means of, of, of assessing students. It’s quick, it’s not terribly helpful, and it’s also not very accurate, but it is fast. So it’s a question of effectiveness versus a efficiency. 

And I think we would all agree that it’s more important that students get effective Feedback than it is for us to be efficient in the way that we’re giving them the feedback. So even another thing my teachers could consider as that, we need to relinquish the control in the space. And if we train students to be really good givers of Feedback as well, and that students need to get, get feedback from their peers before they get feedback from us, then we’re putting structures in place that diminishes the amount of time we have to spend on the front end, giving that first level of Feedback to our students, because we have made them really, really prepared to first of all, be independent in checking for their own Feedback, whether its with checklists or a success criteria or a clear rubrics. 

And then they’re going to peers who have fresh eyes who could look and give them the feedback as well. And when they decide to come to us on, let’s say the third ground, then they’ve gotten feedback from more than one person already. And those systems in itself take some of the burden off of us as teachers to make sure that every child is, is getting the Feedback they need. I will also say that you will not be able to give every child Feedback specifically every single day. 

I would think of it in terms of week long chunks instead of, you know, daily, especially if you walk around with like either an iPad or a M you know, some kind of sadness of the class where your carrying your clipboard and you’re just jotting down what you overhear, student’s talking about it and what you see them doing while you’re observing. And then you’re taking that information that you’re, that you’re gathering while you’re getting the status of the class to make some good decisions about how to adjust, adjust your lesson plans to, to really speak to where kids needs are. 

Ti-Fen: Hmm. I see. So Starr I said, I mentioned earlier in our conversation that I have read your book Hacking Assessment ,  there are two hacks, particularly stood out for me. The first one is Teaching reflection and inks do that for me, because I believe that it is useful for a lifelong. So would you mind giving us an overview about how you implement the lesson plan of teaching reflection? 

Starr: So to me, the most valuable gift I have given my students over the years is the gift of reflection and in purposeful reflection, because I think when students hear reflection, sometimes what they’ve been expected to do is maybe think about if they enjoyed a project, what they thought they got out of it, something really basic and maybe like a paragraph, but nothing that’s actually gonna speak to they’re learning and their process, but the metacognitive process, they went through to complete an assignment. 

So when I’m teaching students how to reflect effectively, there’s a whole process that I go through. The first thing that students have to do is that they have to restate what the assignment was asking them to do in their own words, not cutting and pasting from the document, but really articulating what they thought they had to do. And the reason I ask them to do this is I’m sure your listeners and your Self can empathize with sometimes thinking you created a very clear assignment and when you get the student work back, it doesn’t look anything like what you were expecting. 

And what I have learned over the time working in high school classes is it’s not always the student’s fault for, for having that miscommunication. Sometimes my directions weren’t as clear as they could be. So by asking students to tell me what they thought they had to do, it gives me an opportunity to really assess what they planned on doing. Instead of just assessing what I thought I asked them to do, which are always the same thing. 

So that’s step one paragraph where they’re talking about what the assignment was asking them to do. And then from there, they talk about how they completed the assignment. What steps did they take from start to beginning? Where did they struggle in the learning? How did they overcome those struggles? And then beyond that, they think about the standards were in the world. Do they exhibit the level of proficiency mastery around particular standards that the assignment was addressing and almost like writing an argument paper, they then have to go back to their project and find the evidence from the text that supports where they are on a particular standard. 

And Y from there they then give themselves, they give themselves a grade based on their level of mastery for the assignment. And they then also talk about what they would do differently next time, based on the experience they had with this particular assignment. So there’s a lot going on there. And if a teacher reads the student’s reflections prior to assessing the work, you can really get inside the head of the student and see what feedback you’ve given them along the way, because that will be a part of their process implementing the Feedback and then provide them more specific Feedback with their final product, or were they successful in the things they were working on? 

What should they be working on next? So those reflections really become integral in how you’re providing additional feedback and also assessing their learning because that reflection also fills a lot of gaps before I started inviting students into the process of developing the assessments as well. A lot of times what I was asking students to show me, didn’t always show everything they know. So having these reflections also gave me an opportunity to kinda see in the blind spots

Starr (24m 21s): that the Assessment  Itself didn’t really Assess the first step, What Assessment is asking them to do

Ti-Fen (24m 37s):. So is this a step before or after doing the Assessment there?

Starr: This reflection is after. So they completed the assignment and then before they submit the assignment, their doing this reflection as well, God, they are so own these a lesson plan will be implementing after they doing the Assessment right. It, it would be more goal setting before the Assessment. 

Ti-Fen: I see, I see. So the first step we’re asking them what assessments asking them to do. And the second would be how they accomplish this assessment is there any struggles in what kind of standard they accomplish and any evidence that can support that.  The final state would be a reflection on what  they can do differently next time. So the second hack impressed me a self-Grades. You said that when they’re, so report card crier, you ask your students to grade themselves, given they’re learning progress. Why do you think that we should empower students in valuing it themselves?

Starr: I think kids should know a lot more about themselves as learners. Then we give them credit for, I think a lot of the times they’ve never actually been taught to articulate with a vocabulary, the kind of things we want them to tell us, which is what the struggle is

Starr: But if we teach them about standards and we use the language of standards in our classes, and we align learning targets with the standards that we’re using, and then we co-construct success criteria together. So that the language is very much baked into what we’re doing. Students can then articulate how well they’re doing the, the, the other thing teachers can do that could make that easier as to, to develop progressions based on the standards so that students can really identify where on a progression they are based on the skill set that they have and the things they need to continue working on. 

So if we have student friendly progressions and Students can identify that they are at a specific spot on those progressions, then they know what they are shooting for as they move forward. And they know where they currently are based on that same theory. So we really just need to give kids language so that they could talk about their own learning. I know a lot of folks have asked me in the past, well, you know, won’t kids over grade themselves. 

Like, would they give themselves in a way, just because, and you’d be surprised to know that most kids are harder on themselves than we’d even be on them. There’s a really, really small percentage of students who would over, you know, that we would shoot for the delusions of grand jury. And even though they have no evidence to support where they are in those conversations, they might assess themselves higher. And really the only thing to do from there is just through, you know, turn it around and ask them again, what evidence do you have to support that assessment of yourself and then really make it a point for them to be able to demonstrate that understanding in a way that is tangible with real evidence. 

Ti-Fen: So what did you observe the changes in your students before and after you deploy gradeless Assessment or any story that you can share with us around the moment you realize your hacks are working?

Starr: Oh my God. First of all, the, the level of commitment to learning was increased completely. You know, everybody was like, well, if there were no Grades kids, aren’t going to work as hard. That was definitely not my experience. As a matter of fact, once the Grades were removed, even the students who weren’t your typical, your typical high achieving students, because they didn’t play the game of School had a much better opportunity to be successful because it wasn’t a matter of how many hoops could you jump through. 

It was a matter of how can you demonstrate what you know, and can do. And if I was being more flexible in the kind of Assessment that was going on, and students actually had a voice in the way they were assessed, some of those challenges, especially with the more School averse students, you know, became less because I wasn’t forcing them to do what I wanted them to do. I was listening to what they were saying, and I was giving them an opportunity to make decisions about how they showed they’re learning. 

And as long as their ideas were viable, I allowed them to move forward with them. And I think really over time, it became less about the Grades and more about improvement. That was the biggest shift. The conversations in class were less about, you know, what did I get on that? And more about I’m really struggling with this, or I really improved a lot on that. 

And the fact that they had the language to really articulate those things, made it even easier for me to adjust instruction when I needed too. And it really helps me see them as partners in the developing process in terms of, you know, instructionally, what was happening in the classroom. So there was more of a reciprocal relationship between me and the Students and there was a first and I wasn’t the only arbiter of what was good and great and what we learned. 

And I think that made the space a better learning environment, not just for the students, but for me also,

Ti-Fen:  That’s amazing. I think it’s definitely a win-win situation with deploying these new form or of Assessment. And thank you, Starr for sharing so much amazing ideas in a really clear steps, too, how a teacher,can take in their classroom. So the last few questions I have for you are there any books that have influenced your thinking a lot in the past few years? 

Starr: So like I mentioned before, the book by Ken O’Connor 15 fixes for broken grades, Rick Wormeli is a fair, isn’t always equal is another really good. One more recently, Joe Feldman’s grading for equity is really good. Mark barns is Assessment three point O and role reversal. Also a really good texts. Paul Bloomberg in parks and Barb Pitchfords impact team book, which is all about protocols for more specific PLC conversations around student learning. 

And, you know, I I’ve had a bunch of my, my own books, but there’s certainly a community Alfie cone also has great resources and he has been doing this work, you know, long before I was. And he’s a tremendous resource as well as somebody who knows a lot about helping kids learn without labeling their learning. 

Ti-Fen: That’s a really great list.. I will make sure that they are all in the show notes with also your books as well, to you personally, what is your a core value in education? 

Starr: I believe that every child has something valuable to add to a learning environment. And I believe that we need to honor every child and what those strengths are so that we can all grow as a group. And I think for too long education has segregated kids sort of sorted them into different categories and then ask them to play this game that often favors kids, kids with a lot, you know, whether it’s kids with money or a privileged kids of other kinds that set a lot of other students apart. 

So I think it’s really important that we know our students really well. And we create really inclusive environments that take into consideration the human beings that are sitting in front of us. And Assessment, shouldn’t make kids feel badly about the learning process. It should do the opposite. It should encourage and engage them to want to be a better learners from whatever their starting point is without judgment and without labels

Ti-Fen (33m 52s): So before we close up, do you have any other thoughts, programs or workshops? Do you want to share with our listeners? 

Starr (34m 0s): So there’s a lot of stuff going on right now. I work for the Core Collaborative right now. So would I do is I often coach teams through their assessment process? That’s that’s one thing I do on Fridays on Facebook. I do like a Q and a around Hacking Assessment and that one’s Free they could just show up and participate, ask questions while that’s happening. I have a new book coming out with ASCD in March, which is all about the intersection it’s called assessing with respect and its all about taking into consideration the social emotional needs of students when we make decisions about Assessment and there are also a bunch of online conferences that are going to be happening over the next six months that folks could participate in as well. I have all that stuff on my website 

#20 以實質的學習回饋取代傳統分數 – Starr Sackstein

這集邀請到 Starr Sackstein與我們深聊如何改變傳統分數,給予學生實質回饋,Starr 目前是 the Core Collaborative 的教育顧問,也於 2016 TEDx 上分享她對傳統分數的失望和改革過程,此外,她憑藉多年的翻轉教學經驗,著作多本幫助教育學者提升學習回饋的書,包括:<教導學生自我評量>(Teaching Students to Self-Assess)、<拋棄傳統分數>( Hacking Assessment: 10 Ways to Go Gradeless in a Traditional Grades School) 、<同儕回饋>(Peer Feedback in the Classroom)等等。


追蹤 Starr Sackstein:
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Starr在紐約擔任高中教師時,常在繳交成績時期感到頭痛,因為這意味著有些學生要抱頭痛哭,而他們所知道的只是紙上沒有意義的D。就在Starr兒子上中小學時,發現他們學校採用的精熟學習制度,精熟學習制度成績單的不同是他將學習情形更細膩化的分解,例如: 數學 = 100被取代成 在排列組合上達到專業的程度、在微積分上達到基礎能力、在九九乘法上有待加強等等。如此精細的回饋,激勵Starr改革自己學校傳統分數的框架。

  • 停止在隨堂測驗改分數,給予實質的學習回饋。在一個傳統學校,一開始是無法改變整個系統,所以我們可以從較可掌握的隨堂測驗中著手。
  • 與家長和學生溝通。Starr會將上課狀況分享到YouTube上,讓家長了解沒有分數和有分數下的差別。同時間,持續地利用電子郵件與家長做溝通。


  • 在給予回饋前,詢問學生怎樣的回饋對他們有幫助。
  • 了解自我教學的標準,依據標準給予改善方向。
  • 提供一到兩個實例讓學生更清楚方向。
  • 提空學生時間和空間去做嘗試和改進。




  1. 在做完功課後,詢問學生,他們覺得這個功課的目的是什麼? 在這過程中,亦可幫助您了解是否您的理解與學生一致。
  2. 請學生寫下他們如何完成這項功課。範例問題: 有什麼困境呢? 如何克服這些困難?
  3. 請學生自己打分數。詢問學生在功課中,有哪些證據可以支持他們達到學習目標?
  4. 請學生寫下,如果再做一次,他們會做如何改變。


  • 在當您送出分數時,您對於這個分數,有多大信心其反映出學生的學習狀況。


  • 在功課繳交後,引導學生做自我省思,步驟請參考<教導學生自我反省教案>段落

#20 Going Gradeless in the Traditional Classroom with Starr Sackstein (以實質的學習回饋取代傳統分數)


This episode is all about hacking assessments. If you have been thinking about changing assessment but don’t know how to do it, I hope in this episode, you can get some practical actions to take.   If you have never thought about changing it, this episode will give you a different insight. Today we are excited to have Starr Sackstein to share with her amazing hacks for transforming this paradigm. 

Starr Sackstein has been an educator since 2001 and left her role as the director of humanities in the West Hempstead Union Free School District to become a full-time consultant with the Core Collaborative. Starr was named an ASCD “Emerging Leader” class of 2016 and gave a TEDx Talk called “A Recovering Perfectionist’s Journey to Give Up Grades.” 

She has authored many books for teachers. For example , Teaching Students to Self-Assess,  Hacking Assessment: 10 Ways to Go Gradeless in a Traditional Grades School, Peer Feedback in the Classroom and the list goes on. Starr has traveled the world sharing ideas about assessment reform in Dubai and South Korea and is hoping to continue changing the system for kids everywhere.

Connect with Starr:
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Show Notes with Selected Links


Please go to [here]


  • Have you been frustrated with the struggles to give meaningful feedback?
  • How confident are you with your understanding of every student’s learning progress?

What can you do tomorrow

  • Guide your students with reflections after an assessment which can help you understand if the assessment is helpful. Few steps to take:
    • Ask students what they think the assessment is asking them to do?
    • Ask students what steps they took to complete it? How they overcame the struggles?
    • Students find the evidence to support the standards they achieved.
    • Students grade themselves by evidence
    • Reflect what they would do differently next time.

Song Tracks Credits

#19 如何培養特殊生的專注力與口語表達 – 小魚老師 (Tips for Teaching Focus and Oral Expression in Special Ed)




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本集大綱 Show Notes:

  • [1:21] 為何小魚老師接觸特殊教育是一個美麗的錯誤
  • [4:00] 特殊生有分哪幾類
  • [5:59] 小魚老師本身接觸的特殊生是哪幾類
  • [6:26] 學習障礙的定義
  • [7:38] 台灣如何鑑定學習障礙
  • [9:44] 小魚老師希望她的特殊孩子專注力可以如何改善
  • [11:26] 如何教導學習等待
  • [14:30] 為何利用提示卡而非直接口頭提醒
  • [16:28] 小魚老師分享羽球結合專注力訓練的課室設計
  • [23:47] 小魚老師對於特殊生的口語表達程度的教學目標
  • [26:23] 什麼是 Card Talk app? 如何使用它?
  • [31:30] 結合 Card Talk 於日常教學中的方式
  • [34:00] 過去幾年來,有哪一或兩本書深刻影響小魚老師的思維
  • [38:28] 如果小魚老師有個超能力,他最想要如何改變台灣教育
  • [41:05] 結語

回顧我們的教學 Reflections

  • 您如何提醒學生不妥善的行為呢?您會直接指名道姓地在課室中提醒嗎?

改變的一小步 What can you do tomorrow

  • 嘗試選擇一個球類運動,讓孩子每天花五到十分鐘練習。(專注力的培養)
  • 試玩 Card Talk ,一起與您的學生有效創造圖卡,增加更多有趣的表達工具。

音樂來源 Song Track Credits:

#18 Nurture Young Readers by the Philadelphia Method with Elisa Guerra (Philadelphia 方法培養年幼讀者)


This episode is all about cultivating our young readers.  I’m really happy to have Elisa Guerra joining me who is a well-known expert in early childhood development. 

Elisa Guerra is the founder and teacher at Colegio Valle de Filadelfia . It is a school for (PreK -9th), helping students achieve their fullest potential. Her school model has been replicated in 11 campuses and 5 Latin American countries. She was one of the  TOP50 finalists for the GLOBAL TEACHER PRIZE  in both 2015 and 2016. This award has been called the “Nobel Prize” for Teaching.

Elisa has authored many great books for teaching. For example,   “Learning to read at 3: Doman Method applied in the Preschool Classroom” . This book has been, consistently, first placed in sales in Amazon Mexico.  The most recent book of hers is Hope where are you? is the story of six children around the world who are experiencing school closures because of the pandemic. The book is free and has more than 30 languages.

Connect with Elisa Guerra:
Facebook Twitter Website | Instagram


Acast | Apple Podcast Google Podcast | Spotify | Stitcher | Youtube

Show Notes with Selected Links


  • How do you teach your students to read? Do you use phonetic method? How do you connect meaning with words?
  • How many students of yours love reading?

What can you do tomorrow

  • Create your word cards for your students.
    • No pictures on the cards.
    • Present the pictures or the physical things to your kids to connect the meaning with words in other section.
    • Show the flash cards 3 times a day in short duration.


Please go to [TBD]

Song Tracks Credits

What is your favorite idea from this episode? Please let me know in the comment section! 您在這集中有哪個最喜歡的點子嗎?歡迎在以下留言與我分享!

#18 Philadelphia 方法培養年幼讀者 – Elisa Guerra

這集我們將探索如何教導年幼孩子閱讀和識字。這次我們邀請到Elisa Guerra與我們分享她多年的教導經驗。

Elisa Guerra是Colegio Valle de Filadelfia的創辦人,Colegio Valle de Filadelfia是一所提供學前教育至小學二年級的學校,致力於幫助孩子發揮他們的潛能,此學校的模式已被其餘十一所拉丁學校複製。Elisa也是2015和2016全球優秀教師獎前五十名候選者,這項獎視為教育界的諾盃爾獎。


追蹤 Elisa Guerra:
Facebook Twitter Website | Instagram


Acast | Apple Podcast | Google Podcast | Spotify | Stitcher | Youtube





Philadelphia方式的技巧源自於The Doman Method,不同點是Philadelphia方式在些微改變下,更適用於學校多人環境。以下是此方法的要點:

  • 呈現整個詞語而非單一注音符號,因為注音符號缺少了意義,所以孩子較難貫通。
  • 高頻率,短時間。
  • 合併相關詞語,例如:這禮拜教動物類,下禮拜教植物類。


  • 首先,選擇他們已知道的詞語,例如在他們的戶外遊樂區,寫下他們會接觸的東西、動物名字或同學名字
  • 用紅色麥克筆將詞語寫在紙板上,一個紙板約十公分高,六十公分寬,一張紙一個單字,且每個卡後也有相同詞語。
  • 快速呈現單字,五個單字五秒鐘。每天三次同類組詞語但不同順序。例如,當你到一個學生面前時,你可以說: 哈囉,我有些給你的小驚喜,你看,這是狗、貓…等等,同時,你邊念邊呈現字卡給他們看。
  • 註記: 你不用考他們,不需要叫他們和一起念或甚至寫下來,漸漸地,當你在呈現這些字卡,他們自己就會在你念之前說出來。
  • 一組單字持續一個禮拜,下個禮拜可以換不同類型的詞語。
  • 如果想增加難度,可以將一些形容詞加入字卡,例如:粉紅色的豬



  • 您如何教導您年幼的孩子了解字詞背後的意義呢?
  • 大多少您的學生喜愛閱讀?


  • 當教導年幼的孩子時,您可以試試Philadelphia方式,把他們已知的單字寫在字卡上,短時間,高頻率的呈現給他們。

測業駭客:十種在傳統教室拋棄分數的策略 Hacking Assessment: 10 Ways to Go Gradeless in a Traditional Grades School


思達,薩斯丹,從2001開始就致力於教育界,經過多年在紐約些所高中任教英文和新聞科,如今她離開教職於 the Core Collaborative 擔任全職的教育諮詢家。 思達最為人知的貢獻就是: “分數”在傳統教育的改革。以拋棄分數:一個完美者療癒的旅程為主旨,她站上 TEDx 的舞台,分享她顛簸的改革。 思達憑就她對教育的翻轉和創新,出版了許多著作,如:十種在傳統教室拋棄分數的策略、教導學生如何自我評量、如何協助學生給予同儕回饋等等。思達已在世界各國演講分享她對考試測驗的想法和創新,希望能改變更多孩子的教育品質。




傳統分數的問題: 太多家長、老師和學生過度用分數來標籤學習狀態,分數簡單化一個學生的學習成就,把孩子分類在狹窄的盒子裡,分數散發的負面氣息降低孩子對學習的渴望。
您可以做的第一步: 與學生的溝通,改變孩子對分數的看法,教導成長性思維,例如改變您的詞彙,”你學到什麼?” 取代 “你得到幾分”,”回饋”取代 “分數”,”試看看其他方式” 取代 “你錯了”等等。這樣的改變你一定會受到家長甚至是學生的反抗,因為這是他們所熟知的模式,所以記住這是個循序漸進的改革。





  • 老師教導回饋的鷹架,你可以拿一個學習測驗為例子,領導學生如何提供正向、明確且實質的建議。
  • 把三到四個學生分為一組,讓他們成為某領域的專家 ,試著把不同程度孩子分為一組。
  • 給予不同的領域微課程,因為不同領域會有些微不同的鷹架。
  • 如果學生知道如何使用科技,教導他們使用Google doc留評語。
  • 實施一段時間後,與學生一對一對談,以瞭解這方式是否有幫助他們學習。


反思是學習的重要環節,拿到了回饋,但未有反思的過程,學習是不會進步的。思達建議老師可以問學生: 用我自己的闡述,我會如何解讀這挑戰? 在完成這挑戰後,什麼學習目標會達到或是哪項表現達成這學習目的? 如果我有機會再重做一次,我會做那些改變? 以下是書中實踐模式:

  • 設計一堂課室,教導學生如何自我反省,給予鷹架和實例。
  • 讓學生寫下幫助反思的句子,並貼在教室中以當視覺性的小提醒。
  • 教導學習主旨和學習目標。藉此他們可以了解自我的學習是否有朝目標前行。
  • 反思成為每日一行。思達在每個課堂上,都留給孩子最後五分鐘自省。
  • 老師給於反思回饋。回饋實例: “你的總結很不錯,但你可以用更多例子來實證你的所學。”



  • 與學生討論他們扮演的新角色,最終,伴隨者老師的支持,他們是自己分數的決裁者。
  • 提供鷹架引導學生自我評量。
  • 允許學生利用實證來自我評量。






#17 以數位學習點亮英語教學 – 廖婉雯老師 (Light up English Teaching with Technology )

這集我們將探索如何結合數位學習於英語教學中。這次很開心能邀請到廖婉雯老師與我們分享她多年融合教育科技經驗,婉雯老師目前是臺北市大直高中英文老師,同時也是Apple傑出教育工作者和Google認證訓練講師,婉雯老師曾受獎無數,其中包括:台北市行動研究 翻轉英文 以科技創新教學 用數位點亮學習 優選 和臺北市 「百大菁英資訊科技應用 人才教育獎」等等。


了解更多婉雯老師的分享:Facebook  | 部落格

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本集大綱 Show Notes:

  • [01:18] 老師接觸數位學習的轉捩點
  • [04:20] 學生的樣貌與以前有何不同
  • [06:25] 數位學習如何提升學生專注力
  • [09:34] 老師在課堂上希望學生在聽說上能達到的指標
  • [12:33] Flipgrid是什麼?如何利用Flipgrid幫助學生英文口語表達和課堂上使用的流程
  • [22:53] 老師需要花多少時間去引入一個新科技於課堂上
  • [28:17] 希望學生畢業後,他們在讀寫的程度是如何?
  • [33:05] 什麼是 Reading Journal? 老師在課堂前會用Pages 如何備課且在課堂中,學生會如何去使用
  • [37:42] 為什麼選 Pages ?
  • [40:21] 對於一個無法人人一平板的學校,您覺得學校老師有什麼其他方式可以引入數位學習嗎
  • [43:00] 老師平常會利用什麼媒介或是追蹤任何教育學者去得的數位學習靈感
  • [45:44] 如果老師有一個超能力去改變台灣英語教育,最想改變的是什麼
  • [48:08] 對於一個新進老師,老師最常給的建議是什麼

回顧我們的教學 Reflections

  • 平時您會利用什麼小技巧提升學生專注力與參與度
  • 學生在您課堂上如何練習英語表達

改變的一小步 What can you do tomorrow

  • 如果學校有硬體資源,試著玩玩免費的Flipgrid,思考可以如何利用此軟體應用在您課堂上,增進學生參與度
  • 您的閱讀策略是什麼? 或許可以嘗試避免逐字為您的學生翻譯,教導更宏觀地閱讀,掌握精隨。

音樂來源 Song Track Credits:

#16 透視芬蘭現象為本學習 – Ilona Taimela


我們很幸運有Ilona Taimela加入我們,她專門研究基於現象為本的學習、教育設計思維、參與性過程和永續經營。 Ilona Taimela在芬蘭全國培訓教師已有25年以上的經驗。 她是赫爾辛基教育諮詢集團的首席執行官。在這芬蘭新課室的教改浪潮下,她提供許多芬蘭學校諮商服務,幫助教改扎實地實踐在日常課堂中。

Connect with Ilona:
Facebook Twitter Website

訂閱 Subscribe

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  • 必須跨領域:因為真實世界的難題,都是涉及不同領域的知識和技能。
  • 不分年級的學生可以一起合作,雖然可能會有不同理解,但是現象為本學習啟發點來自每位學生自我所知,而提出不同提問。
  • 專注於過程而非最終產品,真正需要學習的是在這過程中的創意和好奇心。
  • 教師的角色不是填塞知識,而是去激發學生的好奇心,問學生的問題是讓他們有更多問題想要去探索。


  • 芬蘭學校通常給予老師一個時間表,讓老師知道這一年他們需要強調的技能的大方向。
  • 與各科老師一起設計,同時保留彈性,以留給學生空間去發揮
    • 思考那些橫向的技能你想要融合其中,技能可以是各種二十一世紀的橫向技能:溝通能力,思辨能力,合作能力等等
    • 選擇一個相關的現象,有些學校會提供題目給予老師參考
    • 設計單元測驗,幫助學生在過程中審視自我學習情形。
  • 向學生介紹現象,使學生能深刻體驗這現象的緣起
    • 你可以利用影片、邀請校外專家、參觀博物館來介紹這現象等等
  • 學生了解現象後,老師協助學生反思,最重要的兩個問題:
    • 我已知道什麼? 
    • 我想要知道什麼?
  • 學生基於自己想要了解的問題,尋找組別去合作研究,同時,老師可以鼓勵學生去聯繫專家。
  • 最後學生可以用各種方式呈現自己的研究結果,例如:Minecraft、廣播、紙本報告等等


  • 永續經營
  • COVID-19
  • 黑人平權運動




  • 您的學生有與同儕討論學習的空間嗎?
  • 在課堂上,您講話的比例與您學生發言的比例各是多少?


  • 當您介紹一個新概念時,試著問學生他們已知道什麼,那他們想要更進一步知道什麼? 然後,給予您的學生時間去做研究,讓他們有空間實踐自我探索。

#16 Dissect Phenomenon based Learning with Ilona Taimela (透視現象為本學習)


This episode is all about Phenomenon based learning. Given Finland’s Phenomenal Education site , Phenomena-based learning and teaching is that “holistic real-world phenomena provide the starting point for learning. The phenomena are studied as complete entities, in their real context, and the information and skills related to them are studied by crossing the boundaries between subjects”.

We are lucky to have Ilona Taimela joining us who is specialised in Phenomenon based learning, design thinking, participatory processes and sustainability. 

Ilona has an over 25 years of experience from training teachers in Finland nationwide and now more internationally. 

She is the CEO of Helsinki Education Consulting Group.  She provides consulting services to cities and schools in implementing the new Finnish National Curriculum with her long experience from being a classroom and subject teacher,  a university researcher, to an executive director and an administrator.  She is no doubt an engaging, energising and a sought after speaker.

Connect with Ilona:
Facebook | Twitter | Website


Acast | Apple Podcast Google Podcast | Spotify | Stitcher | Youtube

Show Notes with Selected Links

  • [01:55] Why Finland introduced Phenomenon based learning ?
  • [03:16] Why focuses on inter-disciplinary?
  • [04:53] How IIona defines Phenomenon based learning and the key ingredients in Phenomenon based learning?
  • [08:37] An example of Ilona’s favorite Phenomenon based learning project she designed before.
  • [11:28] The steps to design Phenomenon based learning.
  • [18:27] Tools or tips to narrow down the skills teacher want to embed in a phenomenon based learning project.
  • [22:56] Examples of the phenomena Finnish schools have picked.
  • [26:03] What do students’ mind maps look like?
  • [29:16] The ways teacher guide students to do inquiry based learning or facilitate the process.
  • [37:36] Advice for teachers who wants to try out phenomenon based learning.
  • [42:18] Ilona’s core value in education.
  • [43:56] Parting thoughts.


Please go to here.


  • Do your students have the space to teach others in your class?
  • What is the percentage of time you usually talk in a class compared to your students?

What can you do tomorrow

  • Pick a current phenomenon that is relevant to your students’ lives.
  • When introducing a new concept, you can guide your students by asking what they already know and what they want to know about it. After that, giving them some time to do research. 

Song Tracks Credits

What is your favorite idea from this episode? Please let me know in the comment section! 您在這集中有哪個最喜歡的點子嗎?歡迎在以下留言與我分享!